Self-regulated Learners: Masters of Their Own Learning: Part 5

Photo credit: A. McKenzie

I am now about halfway through working through my inquiry project for PME 800. Here is an update.

Additional Resources for Inquiry Project

There are a lot of mountain biking (MTB) videos out there. Some are down right scary in so many ways! Luckily I found a whole series of MTB videos that are produced by Global Mountain Bike Network that are really solid in regards to technique and recommendations for being safe on your bike.

Here are the ones I have been focusing on:

Building Confidence MB video

Top 10 Ways to build confidence video

MB handling tips video

How to ride a pump track video

Beginner Guide to Riding Roots

10 MTB Tips for Beginners

How to corner with confidence video

Here are some articles

6 Ways to Gain Mountain Biking Confidence (article)

The article below (not about MTB) is a really interesting read from a university prof  (UMD) that did an 8 year research project on promoting self-regulation and critical reflection with her students. (I used it to help me think about self-reflection questions I wanted to ask myself following every ride in my journal). 

Promoting Self regulation and Critical Reflection article (Jenson,2011)      htt

This article is about MTB but was another interesting read  (research article) about why people ride.

Why Do You Ride?: A Characterization of Mountain Bikers, Their Engagement Methods, and Perceived Links to Mental Health and Well-Being 

People resources:

Rachel (my daughter)

She has been MTB riding since she was 11 (so for 13 years now). She can MTB anything and is a great support and mentor. She has also worked hard to overcome some serious very injuries; she understands what it means to face the fear of MTB.

What is going well for me? 

I am on track with meeting proximal goals and should therefore be on track for meeting distal goal. The strategies I have been applying to help me meet proximal learning goals have been effective in helping me develop the skills I require to be effective at MTB the easier trails in my area; there has been a reduction in the scared scale ratings following trail rides from 4 down to a 1-3 and I am getting faster completing the MTB trail rides (I am faster riding up and coming down).

Where are areas where I am struggling?

My old truck broke down and will not be available for at least another 2-3 weeks, thereby limiting accessibility to trails and hindering bike transportation (my other vehicle is a very small car). I have therefore needed to come up with alternative arrangements like leaving my bike (30 km away where most of the trails are) at my daughter’s place or, stuffing my bike in my car provided I am driving alone (I need to take both wheels off of the bike to get it in and put all the remaining seats down). This has limited when and where I can ride and requires more coordination with my husband as he needs the car as well.

One of my strategies I had come up with was to ride with a variety of different people to make riding fun and social. Unfortunately, my son came to visit last week and badly sprained his ankle MTB with me on his 2nd day here. A friend has been very busy and will now be away for 3 weeks. My husband has a MTB that is in need of repairs and is not able to have it fixed at this time. This has meant that I am riding alone or with my daughter who has had a very busy work schedule and a lot of visitors over the summer holidays.

What supports would assist me?

I think that I can manage with the transportation situation for now as there are enough trails in town that I can access by bike alone. I will, however, need to get my bike today and bring it to where the trail is that I have set as my final goal to ride so that I can practice.

In terms of riding with other people, I am not sure that I can come up with alternative arrangements in a week’s time. I think that riding alone will be a good challenge as it will help me to further develop my confidence (I am hoping anyways . . .)

How are my SRL skills increasing?

Taking the time to outline proximal goals and identifying and analyzing specific strategies to help meet these has increased my awareness of the key elements of the learning that is required for each step. This has increased my ability to self-monitor and assess for successful execution of the targeted skills.

Writing in a journal after every ride and going through a set list of questions designed to develop my critical reflection skills is increasing my ability to assess the effectiveness of strategies used, examine for other elements that might impact learning that I had not considered before and to better select appropriate strategies for the next time I ride. Validating my fear through the scared scale has allowed me to identify the root cause of the source of the fear and then to be able to provide strategies to reduce the fear. (The scared scale has proven to be an objective way to self-monitor the effectiveness of the strategies applied).

I also now appreciate the need for finding different ways of getting feedback when doing self-directed learning. (I have found that video and objective self-monitoring tools are helpful).

I have also had the opportunity to appreciate how increasing my self-efficacy through the use of supportive strategies like validation, positive self-talk and realistic proximal goals has lead to an increase in motivation (I am having fun riding and want to learn more!) and have not resorted to the use of self- punitive/negative motivation strategies (I have to do this or else . . .).

Finally, doing this inquiry project has me thinking about how these skills can be used to help students learn and apply SRL in their lives.

Self-regulated Learners: Masters of Their Own Learning: Part 6 is the completed monitoring document for my PME 800 inquiry project.  

Self-regulated Learners: Masters of Their Own Learning: Part 4

Photo Credit: A. McKenzie

Below is my monitoring document for my inquiry project for PME 800

Distal Goal  By 18:00 hr, August 7, 2019, I will bike 90% or more of the mountain bike trail, Goosebumps, with a self-reported score of 3 or less on the Scared Scale (SS) upon completion of the ride.  (Scared Scale (SS) at end of document)

Proximal Goals/Dates
Determine basic skills required to meet goal/assess resources/explore
barriers to achieving goal: July 14/19
Resources & Strategies
• Internet search for tips on ways to manage anxiety/fear for MTB
• Interview colleagues/family who are skilled MTBers
• Review articles on SRL from PME 800 Determine basic skills required to meet goal/assess resources/explore for barriers to achieving goal
Proximal Goals/Dates
Ride Snakes and Ladders and Connector trails and assess effectiveness ofScared Scale (SS). Develop questions for self-reflection: July 15/19
Resources & Strategies
• Review PME 800 readings on self-observation and SRL
• Review online resources for critical reflection questions
• Begin developing steps for mental preparation for getting into the zone of riding (to be used each time prior to riding)
Proximal Goals/Dates
Be able to do a full square with body while on the bike. Be able to angle
bike to side when turning. Be able to turn bike around corners using justmy body. Be able to move behind bike seat when going down a steep pitch July 17 – 21/19
Resources & Strategies
• Internet search for online resources/video on positioning in MTB
• Watch Rachel performing the different positions
• Get feedback from Rachel on my performance
• Practice on the road then practice on trails then practice on the pump track
• Journal
Proximal Goals/Dates
Film myself doing a lap on the pump track  July 22/19
Resources & Strategies
• Rachel or Alex will film me using a phone
Proximal Goals/Dates
Be able to ride the ramp on Snakes and Ladders with a SS rating of 3 or
less July 24/19
Resources & Strategies
• Internet search for tips on riding over stuff on the MTB trail
• Review material on building confidence when riding
• Review the weather to avoid wet conditions when planning day
• Practice on flat ramps then incorporate into a ride then practice down ramps
• Journal
Proximal Goals/Dates
Be able to ride a lap of the pump track with a SS of 3 or less July 25/19
Resources & Strategies
• Internet search for tips on riding pump tracks
• Review video of me at pump track
• Watch Rachel at pump track
• Get feedback from Rachel
• Practice!
• Journal
Proximal Goals/Dates
Be able to link together 5 bermed corners on Fairly High Trail with a SS rating of 3 or less July 29/19
Resources & Strategies
• Watch online videos on turning corners
• Watch online videos about steep descents
• Review material on building confidence
• Practice linking 2 turns then build on that
• Journal
Proximal Goals/Dates
Film myself doing a lap on the pump track  Aug 3/19
Resources & Strategies
• Rachel will film me using her phone
Proximal Goals/Dates
Ride 6 different MTB trails with a target SS score of 4 or less
July 17-Aug 7/19
Resources & Strategies
• Ask friends and family (aside from Rachel) to ride with me.
• Review MTB videos and tips
• Review videos of me riding and critically reflect
• Ride, ride and ride!!
• Try riding different sections of Goosebumps
• Journal
• Have fun!  
Proximal Goals/Dates
Post up progress report on onQ (July 30 – Aug 8)
Distal Goal/Date
By 18:00 hr, August 7, 2019, I will bike 90% or more of the mountain bike trail, Goosebumps, with a self-reported score of 3 or less on the Scared Scale upon completion of the ride. 
Resources & Strategies
• Review strategies
• Mental imagery
• Plan for success
• Have fun!
• Celebrate successes even if distal goal not fully realized
• Journal
Post a link to my final inquiry project. Reflect on how my inquiry
connects to SRL: Aug 13

Scared Scale

1) I am in the flow!

2) I am having fun!

3) I am a bit scared but bring it on!

4) I am getting scared

5) I am getting off my bike and walking

6) I think I am going to throw up

Self-regulated Learners: Masters of Their Own Learning: Part 5 will provide resources I found while working on my inquiry project as well as a progress update. 

Self-regulated Learners: Masters of Their Own Learning: Part 3

Photo credit: A.McKenzie

Applying the Principles of Self-regulated Learning: Inquiry Project PME 800

Forethought Phase (McPherson, Osborne, Evans & Miksza, 2019, Figure 1 ).

During this stage analysis of the following needs to take place ((McPherson, Osborne, Evans & Miksza, 2019, Figure 1 ):

  • goal setting and strategic planning
  • self-motivation beliefs
    • self-efficacy
    • outcome expectations
    • task value
    • goal orientation

To set an effective goal it first of all needs to be SMART.

Distal goals – “long-term goals that are accomplished over an extended period of time” (Pappas, 2016, para 9).

Proximal goals – are the intermediary goals that need to be successfully completed  in order facilitate the completion of the distal goal. 

Proximal goals (Pappas, 2016, para 5-8):

  • Increase motivation – meeting goals is rewarding and instills feelings of confidence
  • Provide ongoing feedback – provides opportunity for revisions in order to meet distal goal
  • Make distal goals attainable by breaking down larger goal into smaller goals

Distal Goal

By 18:00 hr, August 7, 2019, I will bike 90% or more of the mountain bike trail, Goosebumps, with a self-reported score of 3 or less on the Scared Scale upon completion of the ride.  (See below for Scared Scale).

Scared Scale

1) I am in the flow!

2) I am having fun!

3) I am a bit scared but bring it on!

4) I am getting scared

5) I am getting off my bike and walking

6) I think I am going to throw up

Why this goal?

I want to explore the impact of a strong emotion (in this case fear) as it relates to self-regulated learning (SRL).  I work with health care providers that can be triggered by experiences that have happened at work and/or are anxious about what could happen and would like to explore strategies for supporting SRL in these situations. I have chosen mountain biking as it is a sport that is anxiety producing for me; 9 years ago I suffered a nasty mountain biking accident and have not mountain biked since.

Interestingly, I have been finding myself wanting to get back on the bike and hit the trails. (I derive a great deal of joy being in the bush and would like to switch it up from trail running).  My motivation is further fueled by the fact that I am surrounded by friends and family that are dedicated mountain bikers and would love to be able to get out with them a bit (task value is high). In fact, I was so pumped up to do it again that last fall, I decided to buy a second hand hard tail 29er.

The problem is that I am feeling anxious every time I use the bike to do even the most simple of trails: (self-efficacy is low, fear is off the scale). I see this project as the perfect opportunity for me to use me as a test case to see how self-efficacy, self-monitoring, goal setting and performance are affected by high levels of anxiety and what impact different strategies for dealing with anxiety will have on supporting me through the SRL process.  I am also curious; will I be able to do this?

Setting the goal

“As students set goals, they become more conscious of their own strengths and weaknesses; moreover their approach to learning becomes more reflective” (Bloom, 2013, p 47).

This was my first discovery in this project. In the process of setting this goal I went through my strengths, weaknesses, consulted experts (my daughter) and began to get a picture of what could be possible. The biggest hurdle I figure is being able to control the anxiety so that I can relearn the skills (and learn ones I obviously missed the first time) that I need to mountain bike the terrain we have where I live.

This process has also led me to engage with inquiry learning about how to deal with the fear issue. My first strategy was development of the Scared Scale. It isn’t a strategy I read about anywhere but felt like something I needed to do. This scale will be my stress barometer and the plan is that I will immediately change my learning activity if I hit a 5 or 6. Target is to keep ratings at 3 or below with the occasional 4 put in.

Locke and Latham (2006)  state that “ . . . studies showed that specific, high (hard) goals lead to a higher level of task performance than do easy goals or vague, abstract goals such as the exhortation to “do one’s best”” (p 265).  As I would be totally stoked to have a higher level of task performance I have selected the trail identified in the goal to have enough features to be challenging but still within my newly acquired/developed skill set (at least I hope!).

As Locke and Latham (2006) note, setting goals “ . . .may motivate people to search for new knowledge. The latter is most common when people are confronted by new, complex tasks” (p 265). As I noted earlier, I will be working on skill development. My proximal goals will need to reflect target areas to help me meet my goal (this includes further exploration about anxiety reducing strategies).  I plan to have multiple, small, just out of reach proximal goals for this project as I know that this is a strong motivator for me. To determine what these proximal goals, the specific skill development I should be working on to meet the distal goal, I will need to consult with experts.

Finally, the goal I have set is an approach goal (it is a desired outcome) and is mastery focused as for me it is all about the learning. Approach and mastery goals “enhance mental focus” and ‘ . . .enhanced performance”. (Locke and Latham, 2006, p 267).  I like the idea of being mentally focused with enhanced performance.

Strategies that I will use to help me meet my goals

Personal Strategies (UCONN|University of Connecticut, n.d.):

  • I will practice the basic skills required to meet my goal as outlined in my Monitoring Document;
  • I will document what skills are practiced and what strategies are applied during the practicing of these skills in a journal and make revisions as needed in order to meet goals;
  • I will provide a rating on the Scared Scale prior to riding/during riding/ and after riding. If a SS score of 5 or more is reached at any time during practice sessions, the activity will be abandoned and revisions immediately undertaken to return SS rating to 4 or less.

Behavioural strategies (UCONN|University of Connecticut, n.d.):

  • I will journal after every ride and assess if proximal goals were met and if not revisions that should be applied to goal;
  • I will get feedback from experts – through one on one observation and through video;
  • I will develop SMART proximal goals, in consultation with experts, which I should be able to successfully complete thereby gaining confidence and continued motivation to continue.

Environmental strategies (UCONN|University of Connecticut, n.d.):

  • I will look for quality mountain biking resources on line;
  • I will recruit an expert (my daughter) to help me with skill development, for advice on what skills to focus on and for feedback;
  • I will ensure that I use the scared scale as a tool to determine if activities are too challenging and make revisions accordingly;
  • I will ensure that I am in shape to be able to meet the demands of mountain biking.

Self-reflection strategies

I will ask myself the following questions after every ride, document in my journal the responses and summarize insights learned in my monitoring document.

Proximal goal:

Focused activity:

Scared Scale rating: Pre/during /after

Reflection Questions:

  • What went well and why
  • Strategies used
  • Revisions to strategies
  • Any process issues?
  • Any environmental issues?
  • Any other issues?
  • Insights learned
  • Did you celebrate successes during this ride if not why not?

Self-regulated Learners: Masters of Their Own Learning: Part 4 will outline my monitoring document for my inquiry project for PME 800.

References

Bloom, M., (2013) Self-regulated learning: Goal setting and self-monitoring The Language Teacher Readers’ Forum . Retrieved  from: https://jalt-publications.org/files/pdf-article/37.4tlt_art2.pdf

McPherson, G. E., Osborne, M. S., Evans, P., & Miksza, P. (2019). Applying self-regulated learning microanalysis to study musicians’ practice. Psychology of Music47(1), 18–32. https://doi.org/10.1177/0305735617731614 Retrieved from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0305735617731614#articleCitationDownloadContainer

Jenson, J., (2011) Promoting Self-regulation and Critical Reflection Through Writing Students’ Use of Electronic Portfolio International Journal of ePortfolio, Volume 1, Number 1, 49-60. Retrieved from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/bc9d/e23173c260225dfbf01648c950304ef2cf04.pdf

Locke, E. A. & Latham, G.P.  (2006) New Directions in Goal –Setting Theory Current Directions in Psychological Science Vol. 15, No. 5

Pappas, C., (2016) elearning Proximal VS Distal Goals In eLearning. efront Retrieved from: https://www.efrontlearning.com/blog/2016/05/proximal-vs-distal-goals-elearning.html

UCONN|University of Connecticut (n.d.) Common Self-Regulation Strategies RENZULLI CENTER FOR CREATIVITY, GIFTED EDUCATION, AND TALENT DEVELOPMENT The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented (1990-2013). Retrieved from: https://nrcgt.uconn.edu/underachievement_study/self-regulation/sr_section7/

Zimmerman, B..J. (1990) Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Success: An Overview Educational Psychologist, 24(1), 3-17 Lawrence Erbaum Associates, Inc. Retrieved from https://ciel.viu.ca/sites/default/files/self_regulated_learning_and_academic_achievement_an_overview_0.pdf

Self-regulated Learners: Masters of Their Own Learning: Part 2

Photo credit: A.McKenzie

Motivation and Learning

Zimmerman (1990) states: “(a)n important aspect of theories of self-regulated learning is that student learning and motivation are treated as interdependent processes that cannot be fully understood apart from each other” (p 6). 

In my readings about self-regulated learning, I found 3 key elements that are part of our motivation to want to learn something:

  • Self-efficacy – “an individual’s belief in his or her capacity to execute behaviors necessary to produce specific performance attainments” (Carey &  Forsyth, n.d., para 1)
  • Task value  

“New learning – real learning – is hard work” (Katz & Dack, 2013, para 30).  This means that part of being a self-regulated learner is finding ways to not only create momentum for learning but to sustain it.

The remaining metacognitive process, those involved with performance control also play a vital part of self-regulated learning.

Metacognitive Processes: Application of Strategies and Feedback Loop

Zimmerman (1990) states that “ . . . self-regulated learners are distinguished by (a) their awareness of strategic relations between regulatory processes or responses and learning outcomes and (b) their use of these strategies to achieve their academic goals (p 5).

Furthermore, self-regulated learners utilize the “self-orientated feedback loop” where they “ . . .  monitor the effectiveness of their learning methods or strategies and react to this feedback in a variety of ways, ranging from covert changes in self perception to overt changes in behavior such as altering the use of a learning strategy” (Zimmerman, 1990, p 5).

During the performance control phase of self-regulated learning, strategies for learning as well as strategies for assessing the effectiveness of the learning strategies are chosen and applied.

Strategies for learning include:

Personal strategies (UCONN|University of Connecticut, n.d.):

  • Organizing and transforming information  (i.e., concept mapping, summarizing);
  • Keeping records and monitoring  (i.e, journaling);
  • Rehearsing and memorizing (i.e., mnemonics);

Behavioural strategies (UCONN|University of Connecticut, n.d.):

  • Self-evaluating (i.e., getting feedback, evaluation of proximal goal completion);
  • Sustaining motivation for goal completion.

Environmental strategies (UCONN|University of Connecticut, n.d.):

  • Seeking information;
  • Seeking expert support;
  • Altering the immediate environment to support learning (i.e., minimizing distractions).

Strategies for the assessment of learning include:

Self-reflection:

  • Are strategies effective to meet learning goals? Why or why not?
  • Are there other issues that impacted learning?
  • How can this new learning/skill be applied to future learning/situations?
  • When did I feel most distanced from the learning? (adapted from Brookfield CIQ) Why? What steps were taken to sustain motivation?
  • When did I feel most engaged with the learning? (adapted from Brookfield CIQ) Why?

Self-regulated Learners: Masters of Their Own Learning: Part 3 will outline my experiences applying the processes of self-regulation for my inquiry project.

References

Bloom, M., (2013) Self-regulated learning: Goal setting and self-monitoring The Language Teacher Readers’ Forum . Retrieved  from: https://jalt-publications.org/files/pdf-article/37.4tlt_art2.pdf

Brookfield, S.D (n.d.) Using the Critical Incident Questionnaire (CIQ) Dr. Stephen D. Brookfield  Retrieved from: http://www.stephenbrookfield.com/ciq

Carey, M. P. &  Forsyth, A. D., (n.d.) Teaching Tip Sheet: Self-Efficacy American Psychological Association. Retrieved from: https://www.apa.org/pi/aids/resources/education/self-efficacy

Jenson, J., (2011) Promoting Self-regulation and Critical Reflection Through Writing Students’ Use of Electronic Portfolio International Journal of ePortfolio, Volume 1, Number 1, 49-60. Retrieved from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/bc9d/e23173c260225dfbf01648c950304ef2cf04.pdf

Katz, S., & Dack, L. A. (2013). Towards a culture of inquiry for data use in schools: Breaking down professional learning barriers through intentional interruption. Studies in Educational Evaluation

Self-Attribution (n.d.) Psychology Retrieved from: https://psychology.iresearchnet.com/social-psychology/self/self-attribution/

UCONN|University of Connecticut (n.d.) Common Self-Regulation Strategies RENZULLI CENTER FOR CREATIVITY, GIFTED EDUCATION, AND TALENT DEVELOPMENT The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented (1990-2013). Retrieved from: https://nrcgt.uconn.edu/underachievement_study/self-regulation/sr_section7/

Zimmerman, B..J. (1990) Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Success: An Overview Educational Psychologist, 24(1), 3-17 Lawrence Erbaum Associates, Inc. Retrieved from https://ciel.viu.ca/sites/default/files/self_regulated_learning_and_academic_achievement_an_overview_0.pdf

 

Self-Regulated Learners: Masters of Their Own Learning: Part 1

Photo credit: A.McKenzie

According to Zimmerman (1990) self-regulated learning involves:

  • Applying the process of metacognition (planning, setting goals, organizing, self-monitoring and self-evaluating) throughout the process of learning;
  • Using “self-orientated feedback loop” ( p 5) to monitor the effectiveness of the metacognitive processes;
  • Motivational processes .

Click here for an image of The Cycle of Self-Regulated Learning. 

Below is a schematic I made to help me remember the different components of self-regulated learning.

Let’s take a closer look at the following metacognitive processes:

  • Planning;
  • Setting goals.

Planning

I am a proponent of constructivist learning theory and appreciated how the article, Learning to Learn (n.d.) provides a series of questions that prompts the learner to reflect on past experiences and knowledge before moving to establishing a new learning goal. I suggest that an evaluation of the contextual, cultural and emotional responses to the learning should also be explored so that identification of as many of the issues surrounding the learning can happen.

“Research over the past two decades identified stress and the hormones and neurotransmitters released during and after a stressful event as major modulators of human learning and memory processes, with critical implications for educational contexts” (Vogel & Schwabe, 2016, Abstract).  I feel that addressing the emotionality of learning is also critical for SRL for although “we may think of ourselves as thinking creatures that feel, biologically we are feeling creatures that think” (Taylor as cited in Merriam & Bierema, 2014, p.170, italics in original citation).

Setting Goals

I reviewed the following resources: Briceno’s (2016) How to get better at the things you care about and How to write a SMART goal, in addition to the text documents:  Self regulation through goal setting (Shunk, 2001) and Learning to Learn (n.d) to gain more insight about determining and establishing goals within the context of the SRL process.

What I gleaned from the resources is that goal setting isn’t just about a singular goal but establishing goals “ . . . across the different phases of self-regulation: forethought (setting a goal and deciding on goal strategies); performance control (employing goal-directed actions and monitoring performance); and self-reflection (evaluating one’s goal progress and adjusting strategies to ensure success” (Shunk, 2001,p 2).

In the forethought phase, distal goals are formed. Distal goals need to be SMART; specific, measurable, agreed upon (I would qualify that focusing on what the learner is wanting to achieve), realistic and within a certain time frame. Both Shunk (2001) and Briceno (2016) emphasized the importance of having realistic goals – goals that are just above current level of learning/performance; not too hard and yet not too easy. I can relate to that as I have found that meeting (or surpassing) easy distal goals didn’t feel authentic and too difficult goals has resulted in me feeling frustrated, suffering from a reduction in self-efficacy and/or trips to the hospital for broken bones.

In the performance phase, proximal goals, foundations for the distal goal become the focus. Proximal goals allow for effective self-monitoring (am I on track to meet distal goal) and are, I feel, synonymous with what Briceno (2016) refers to as deliberate practice, which he describes as breaking down learning down into smaller areas of focus.   

What resonated for me with Briceno’s (2016) TED talk is the fluidity that is required between performing and learning in order to achieve distal goals. The feedback loop between performing and learning (evaluating, reflecting, revising) is critical for learning as it allows for the actualization of proximal goals. Briceno (2016) also stressed the importance of formative feedback and safe zones for learning . While I am very conscious about creating this for my students, I realize that I do not hold the same standard for myself. This is something I am going to focus on for my inquiry project where I will be applying the processes of self-regulated learning to help me meet the distal goal of having fun (safely) mountain biking, Goosebumps, a MTB trail in my area.

Self-regulated Learners: Masters of Their Own Learning: Part 2 will review motivation, behaviour and the remaining metacognitive processes of performance control and self-reflection.

References

Learning to Learn (n.d) Study Guides and Strategies Retrieved from: http://www.studygs.net/metacognitiona.html

Merriam, S.B. & Bierema, L.L. (2014) Adult Learning: Linking Theory and Practice San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass

projectsmart (producer) (Dec 24, 2012) How to write a SMART goal. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Mi9_XEXQqc

Schunk, D. H. (2001). Self-regulation through goal setting. (ERIC/CASS Digest ED462671)

TEDx Manhattan Beach(producer) (Nov 2016) Video Briceno, E: How to get better at the things you care about Retrieved from: https://www.ted.com/talks/eduardo_briceno_how_to_get_better_at_the_things_you_care_about

Vogel, S. & Schwabe, L., (2016) Learning and memory under stress: implications for the classroom npj Science of Learning Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/npjscilearn201611

Zimmerman, B..J. (1990) Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Success: An Overview Educational Psychologist, 24(1), 3-17 Lawrence Erbaum Associates, Inc. Retrieved from:  https://ciel.viu.ca/sites/default/files/self_regulated_learning_and_academic_achievement_an_overview_0.pdf